What is a domain name?⁠⁠

Started by yangss01, Nov 01, 2022, 07:10 AM

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yangss01Topic starter

Today, some information about domain names. The topic has a rather mediocre relationship to the hosting itself, but they are quite closely related.
To begin with, a free definition. A domain name is a set of characters that is necessary to identify a network node and various resources and services hosted on it (websites, e–mail, file exchange services and databases). For example: dnray.com — this is the name of the site that is physically located on some server. The server has an IP address of, but for the convenience of remembering (not only for this, but about this another time) the site has been assigned a symbolic name dnray.com .

Why is it needed? Every public node on the Internet has a specific IP address. As I wrote earlier, over time there were so many nodes that it became quite problematic to remember their addresses, so the DNS service was introduced. So it became possible to name network nodes with easier-to-remember symbolic names. It's like writing a person's full name in front of a number in a mobile phone notebook, and then calling him by this full name.
What is a domain and what is it eaten with? IT, Hosting, Long-post, Domain, Informative

A domain zone is a large domain containing domains of a certain level. Now, for the most part, by saying "domain zone", the speaker means a first-level domain: .DE, .COM, .ORG, etc. But from a technical point of view, a domain zone can be called all the variety of addresses also within the domain of the second, third and N-level. For example at the address dnray.com the domain zone is .COM.

There are several types of domain zones of the first (upper) level:

- gTLD — Generic Top Level Domain, general purpose domain zones. Now there are about three dozen such domain zones. Popular: .COM, .NET, .ORG, .INFO

- ccTLD — Country Code Top Level Domain, domain zones allocated for certain countries. For example .SU — former Soviet Union, .BY — Belarus, .KZ — Kazakhstan, .CN — China, etc.

- IDN - Internationalized Domain Names, internationalized domain names containing characters from national alphabets.
What is a domain and what is it eaten with? IT, Hosting, Long-post, Domain, Informative

Where do domains come from? To get a domain for use, you need to contact an organization that has a special accreditation for performing operations with domains. Such companies are called domain name registrars. You can contact them directly or through some intermediary, for example, a hosting company. And often the price of the intermediary is much lower than that of the registrar himself. This is explained by the fact that the registrar makes significant discounts for volumes.

Using the example of my organization, I can say that the registrar we work with sells domains at retail. The partner price, which is set by the registrar for us, allows us to offer our users domains in the same. Taking into account all the costs of intermediary services, equipment operation, taxes, etc., etc., this price is unprofitable for the company. The loss is not big, but still there is.
This price covers the loss on registration and even allows you to get a small margin, but still this price is much lower than the price at the registrar.

Other hosting providers often have a one-year registration-renewal price. But since domain registration is not the main source of the hosting provider's income, the margin from this service is completely symbolic.
Although there are companies, I will not poke my finger, the pricing policy for which domains is absolutely not clear to me. They sell domains for cosmic money: two to three times the registrar's price tag.

But I got distracted.
Someone has already noticed that the price of domain registration is indicated with reference to the period. For the most part, domains are registered for a period of one year. During this year, they are the property of the person or organization specified in the domain owner's questionnaire, which is filled out during registration. But after a year, the domain needs to be renewed.
In fact, the registrar does not sell the domain, but rents it out. This is the specifics of working with them.

Each domain zone has its own rules for registration and maintenance of domains within this zone. In many ways, the rules for different zones are similar, but there are also cardinal differences. For example, to register a domain in the zone .COM, the questionnaire of the domain owner should contain only his general data: full name, company name, address, phone, fax, e-mail. For the zone .EN the owner's questionnaire must also contain the passport details of the owner, if it is a person, and the INN/KPP, if it is a company.
What is a domain and what is it eaten with? IT, Hosting, Long-post, Domain, Informative

Some registration zones require specific documents (for example .PRO). Some allow domain registration only on applications from organizations working in a certain area (.AERO). Some register for free, but you may be denied the renewal of such a domain in the absence of a certain number of visitors on the domain site.
In general, that's a lot.

I will make a reservation right away that there are no prohibitions on domain registration in the zone.COM for, for example, the home page. And in the same way , no one will forbid you from registering a commercial organization 's website in the zone .ME.
But still, various nuances sometimes occur.  Therefore, when you decide to register a domain, think about this issue in advance.

I'm sorry for the confusion. The topic is very broad. Somehow, it didn't really work out to sort out the knowledge on the shelves. If you have any questions, ask in the comments, I will try to answer.


Thanks, keep up the good work. In general, there is still a search for accessible and easily digestible material in the IT field.
such an understandable article would have been while I was studying at university and then the topic had to be collected in pieces of varying degrees of clarity in a bunch of sources.
And here it is concise and accessible.


Today there is little information about domain names. This topic has rather mediocre relevance to hosting itself, but they are quite closely related. A domain name is the set of characters needed to identify a host and the various resources and services hosted on it (Web sites, e-mail, file sharing services, and databases).


Simplicity and convenience, that's what became the key for me when choosing a domain, and a familiar SEO promotion specialist said, they say, "don't be wise."
I do not regret that this is exactly what I did, it is easier to promote through search engines.


Thanks for the interesting propaedeutic post! I recently started to study this topic, so for me it is very useful! However, I did not quite understand the allusion to a company with inadequate pricing, is that a "monster" Google?


A domain name is the name of a website after .HTTPS://WWW is the domain name then. COM .